These types of vehicles use a different technology from the conventional internal combustion engine.
Hybrid vehicles combine an internal combustion engine and also one or more electric motors installed such that they can power the vehicle either individually or together. They have regenerative braking, which uses the braking energy to produce electricity, and storage batteries.
- A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) combine internal combustion engine and an electric battery that can be recharged from an external source of electricity via plug. For example, the Toyota Prius Plug-in Hybrid works just like a regular Prius, but with an extended electric driving range for enhanced fuel efficiency.
Electric vehicles (EVs) run on electricity only. They are propelled by one or more electric motors powered by rechargeable battery packs and produce less noise than traditional vehicles.
- Fully electric vehicles (EVs): work exclusively with one electric motor. For example, the Nissan Leaf, Renault Zoe, etc.
- Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV): these vehicles have a plug-in battery pack and electric motor, as well as an internal combustion engine. The difference with a plug-in hybrid is that the electric motor always drives the wheels, with the internal combustion engine acting as a generator to recharge the battery when it is depleted. For Example: Opel Ampera.
The fuel cell is an electrochemical system that converts chemical energy into electrical energy and steam. This concept offers a substantial advantage over classical combustion technology, not only by increasing the efficiency but because when hydrogen fuel is the only emission produced water vapour is used.
The following options are alternatives fuels:
In these vehicles, the fuel is a mixture of propane and butane which is stored compressed in a tank. Environmental benefits presented to emit less pollution than conventional fuels.
- Bio ethanol
Bio ethanol is a form of quasi-renewable energy that can be produced from agricultural feedstock like sugar, starch or cellulose. It has a clear benefit over fossil fuels is the greenhouse gas emissions.